A facile strategy for the controllable growth of CdS nanoparticles at the periphery of MoS2 en route the preparation of electron donor‐acceptor nanoensembles is developed. Precisely, the carboxylic group of α‐lipoic acid, as addend of the modified MoS2 obtained upon 1,2‐dithiolane functionalization, was employed as anchor site for the in situ preparation and immobilization of the CdS nanoparticles in an one‐pot two‐step process. The newly prepared MoS2/CdS hybrid material was characterized by complementary spectroscopic, thermal and microscopy imaging means. Absorption spectroscopy was employed to register the formation of MoS2/CdS, by observing a broad shoulder centered at 420 nm due to CdS nanoparticles, while the excitonic bands of MoS2 were also evident. Moreover, based on the efficient quenching of the characteristic fluorescence emission of CdS at 725 nm by the presence of MoS2, strong electronic interactions at the excited state between the two species within the ensemble were identified. Photoelectrochemical assays of MoS2/CdS thin‐film electrodes revealed a prompt, steady and reproducible anodic photoresponse during repeated on‐off cycles of illumination. A significant zero‐current photopotential of −540 mV and an anodic photocurrent of 1 μA were observed, underlining improved charge‐separation and electron transport from CdS to MoS2. The superior performance of the charge‐transfer processes in MoS2/CdS is of direct interest for the fabrication of photoelectrochemical and optoelectronic devices.