Graphene oxide (GO) is widely used as a component in thin film optoelectronic device structures for practical reasons because its electronic and optical properties can be controlled. Progress critically depends on elucidating the nanoscale electronic structure of GO. However, direct experimental access is challenging because of its disordered and nonconductive character. Here, we quantitatively mapped the nanoscopic charge distribution and charge dynamics of an individual GO sheet by using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Charge domains are identified, presenting important charge interactions below distances of 20 nm. Charge dynamics with very long relaxation times of at least several hours and a logarithmic decay of the time correlation function are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, revealing an universal hopping transport mechanism best described by Efros–Shklovskii’s law.